Basics of linux operating system

Now a days linux is getting popularity among many corporate sector and mobiles over microsoft because of its tight security system and multi-user and multi-tasking interface. Here in this article I am going to describe completely about Linux world step by step:

linux an operating system which is not only a free operating system but lots of more…


Linux is a kernel in short; it is a free operating system which is used
by lots of users all over the world. It is a multi-tasking and multi-user
operating system.

Now lets us proceed step by step to explore and to reach to the




Linus Torvalds introduces Linux in 1991. Linux is developed keeping UNIX as reference
model. We can consider Linux as another UNIX version. Mr. Linus has made the source code of the
Linux kernel explores among the world of education and to develop and change over the internet.
Linux is an open development model. It accepts modification to the kernel core. The core of the Linux is
kernel which controls the resources of the computer and allots this resource to the users and for
different tasks. In simple words kernel allows the user to interact with the we cannot
directly access kernel, rather we need an interface to connect to kernel called “SHELL”…


BOURNE SHELL: – original UNIX shell written by Steven Bourne at AT & T laboratory. This is the default
shell for Linux.

C SHELL: – written by bill joy at UC Berkeley.

KORN SHELL (K SHELL) :- written by DAVID KORN at AT & T lab.


The x windows system for x11 is the foundation for GUI (Graphical User Interface) on Linux. The x
server works with graphics hardware (VGA) and the applications requires graphic display is an x client.
Linux provides two desktop environments.



By default Linux has configured 6 virtual console and 1 x console. We can move to any virtual console
by typing ctrl + alt +Fx, where x stands for 1 to 6 and F1 is the x console.

stay connected for more articles on LINUX.. 🙂



Nowadays in this computerized world, nothing will be done in a computer without an operating system…… so its important that one must understand this operating system as clear as possible…

so here I am trying to let you guys understand the working of an operating system, very clearly…

Whenever you guys turn on your PC or laptop  it’s great to think that you’re the controller. The computer mouse which you can move everywhere on the screen, play music surf internet and control your settings. Although it’s very cool to feel like a controller in front of your computer or laptop, there’s a lot going on inside of your PC, and the real hero behind the curtain handling all the necessary tasks is the OS or Operating System. The operating system (OS) is the foremost thing loaded onto the computer …. without this your computer is useless.


simple flow diagram of link between user and operating system (OS)

So what is OS and how this stuff works???

An operating system (OS) is basically a collection of software that manages the computer hardware resources & provides common services for programs of computer. The OS is a vital component of the system software in a computer. All the Application programs usually require an operating system to function as it link the user with the hardware.

Some common OS- 

The  popular modern operating systems are Android, iOS, BSD,  Mac OS X, QNX, Microsoft Windows,Linux,Windows Phone & IBM z/OS. 

Working of OS:-

In simple language an operating system is a bridge that connects user with the hardware and it operates the proper functionality of the system, as it is the road where all the applications performs……

The main purpose of an operating system is to control and well organise the software and hardware so that the device it lives in behaves in a flexible but in a predictable way.The user remains behind the curtain which works out of the boundary.

OS understands only English or sometimes any high level language…

Then the application part, which is software, helps to run all the programs and performs several tasks on computer…

The outermost part is the shell which interacts with the user commands, receiving from the application part…

Then the role is played by the essential layer of an operating system “KERNEL” it outputs the basic services or functions to all other parts of operating system on behalf of user commands, queries, or other applications…

 The innermost part is the hardware which understands only the 0, 1 (binary) language…

Now it is totally clear about the basic information about the structure and working of an operating system…..

stay connected 🙂 🙂

Slow computer performance? – Best tips to boost up the speed

Today the world is mostly depends on the computer technology. Every service now a day’s is incomplete without the help of computer. Today one can’t deny the fact that from schools to colleges, from rail & air ticket booking, from official work to banking everywhere the need of computer increasing day by day at an electrifying rate.

Human is a creator of Computer, but generally works much and much faster than the human brain that’s why today scientist research more to develop robot that performs work like human, but operates on computer. Computer does each and every work very fast whether the processing is hard or easy. But sometime people face many problems of slow computer performance.

Actually there are lots of reasons which affect the computer performance and make it slow during processing.

*A slow running computer may be infected by a virus and corrupted files of some kind which doesn’t allow the other files to process fast.

* Another common cause of a slow computer performance is running of too many programs at a time.

* Virus, spyware and Trojan will also affect the PC’s overall performance through the backdoor and slow the computer processing.

*Lack of RAM will also play a vital role in computer performance. If the RAM is very low, it would keep freezing when anyone tries to run big and heavy programs and never responds.

* Too many files on the desktop also would affect the computer performance.

Everyone wants to overcome these problems and make their computer fast so that they can do their work in a quick span of time. To make computer working fast firstly one has to thinking about how to fix a slow computer performance.

For fixing the slow performance a disk clean up program is very important. There are many cleaner program are available today. One can choose the best for them. To repair the slow computer performance perfectly one must have a good anti-virus in their computer. Anti-viruses scan all the data and make the computer free from the viruses and effected files. But one should always aware that their anti-virus should always up-to-date so that they can fight with the latest virus and spyware. One should empty their recycle bin regularly to save the valuable storage space and speed up the system. Running a system and registry scan improves much the slowness. This service will uncover all registry errors that will cause a slow computer performance. If there are any errors, corrupted or malicious files in the registry then one will get rid of these errors quickly and enable the computer to run smoothly.

Computers become slow if there is a program running in the background that is taking up too much memory. Computer can only do so many tasks at once; if it’s cross the limit, then it will start to slow down considerably. During opening the task manager one will be able to see the processes that are simultaneously running and from there one can choose to close the unimportant program at that time. By doing so, one will be able to free up some valuable memory to speed up the system. After applying these entire procedures, one will surely boost up their computer speed and forget about all the issues of slow computer performance.

Diagnose hard disk drive failure problems

Hearing a whining sound sometimes: –

*the hard disk is spinning at high speed inside its enclosure. This may be the sound you hear if it powers

down to conserve energy. You may hear it occasionally speed up when data is being accessed or written.

*if the sound is new or unusually loud, it could be an indication of a hard disk failure. Backup any critical data before tracking further action.

Hearing a ratcheting or tick tock sound :-

*As the drive reads and writes the data , the heads are moving.  This maybe the sound you are hearing and it may be not be a cause of concern.

*if the sound is new or unusually loud, it could be an indication of a hard disk failure. Backup any critical data before tracking further action.

The pc starts to boot but the operating system never starts or getting a message similar to cannot load operating sound:-

*the boot sector of the drive may be damaged. This may require a reformat of drive(Reformating wipes out all programs and data)

*the drive may failed and reqires replacement.

*the power supply has failed and needs to be replaced.

*the pc is unable to communicate with the hard drive. It may simply be a loose power connector or interface cable check, the cables to the hard disk.

One can access the hard disk only after booting from a floppy:-

You may have a boot sector virus or otherwise damaged boot sector. Scan with an up to date virus scanner.

Getting a hard disk failure message:-

*the pc is unable to communicate with the hard drive. It may simply be a loose power connector or interface cable check, the cables to the hard disk.

*the power supply could be failing.